Sierra Leone is bounded on the north-west, north and north-east by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. It has an area of 27,925 sq. miles. The colony of Sierra Leone originated in the sale and cession in 1787 by indigenous chiefs to English settlers of a piece of land intended as a house for African settlers who had been waifs in London and later on it was employed as a settlement for freed African slaves. The hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on 21st August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on 27th April, 1961 and turned a Republic in 1971. Education and learning is presented by the two non-public and state-sponsored faculties. The existing program of training is 6-three-4-four (that is 6 several years Principal university, three a long time Junior Secondary College, four a long time Senior Secondary University and 4 a long time tertiary/increased education and learning. This method is complemented by non- official training.
Principle OF Education
Education is frequently used in the feeling of instruction in the classroom, laboratory, workshop or domestic science area and is composed principally in the imparting by the teacher, and the acquisition by pupils, of details and psychological as properly as handbook capabilities. A wider that means than instruction is that of schooling. That is to say all that goes on in the college as portion of the pupil’s existence there. It consists of, amongst other items, connection amongst pupils and academics, pupils and pupils both in and exterior the university. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that what ever will help to form the human being to make the individual what he is or hinder him from becoming what he is not is portion of his education and learning. Implicitly training is lifelong and ubiquitous it is the sum overall of all influences which go to make a person what he is, from start to demise. It contains the residence, our neighbors, and the road amid other people.
Training is to some extent a deliberate prepared process devised and executed by the educator with the purpose of imbuing the learner with specific information, capabilities, of mind and physique as nicely as modes of conduct regarded as desirable. In component it is the learner’s possess response to the setting in which he life. Training has a few focal points: the person/individual on whom the educator’s influences are brought to bear the modern society or group to which he belongs and the complete context of truth within which the individual and modern society perform their element. Man is a social creature he grows as a particular person via the effect of character on persona and even for his basic actual physical wants he is dependent on the assist and cooperation of his fellow men and women. With no modern society and the mutual support and enrichment of encounters which it offers civilization is extremely hard and the lifestyle of male, in Hobbes’ phrases, is “solitary, poor, awful, brutish and quick.”
One particular of the fundamental specifics of human existence is the rigidity among the pull of the previous and the forward urge into the foreseeable future, amongst steadiness and adjust, tradition and innovation. For efficient residing,man demands a circle of security, an location of proven practices and romantic relationship which varieties trustworthy associations. This is also accurate of culture. For its efficient operating there should be an fundamental continuity of traditions and outlook which preserves its identification as a culture and safeguards it towards the disruptive consequences of modify. Adjust need to be for lifestyle and not static but this alter in switch should be managed by the basic traditions of culture. It is tradition which presents a nation its character and distinctiveness as a culture. The conservation of custom for that reason is certainly essential.
It has been regarded from time immemorial that the conservation of standard schooling has a important element to enjoy in the improvement of the kid. The youngsters of these days are the grown ups of tomorrow they have to be trained for that reason, to inherit and perpetuate the beliefs and modes of daily life peculiar to the distinct culture to which they belong. For every single modern society has the wish to maintain alone not only physically but as group consciously sharing specific aims, beliefs and designs of habits. This kind of education and learning is not automatically official in colleges by signifies of classroom instruction but that effected indirectly by means of the household and by means of the impact on the individual of social influences and customs which the child are not able to evade. In Sierra Leone this social schooling integrated elaborate ceremonies of initiation involving feats of stamina in which youthful guys and women have to confirm by themselves worthy of the local community. The supreme aim was to generate an specific who was truthful, respectful, experienced, cooperative, and who could conform to the social buy of the day. As Aristotle once said “the constitution of a condition will experience if schooling is neglected. The citizens of a state must usually be educated to go well with the constitution of the point out. The type of character proper to a constitution is the power which proceeds to maintain it as it is also the state power which originally developed it” (p. I).
Standard Education IN Modern society
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Traditional education and learning has the two a creative and conservation purpose in society it is a strong signifies of preserving a society’s customs, if not culture. In the previous the mother nature and demands of society performed a vital portion in deciding the character of education. Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) after wrote in his guide, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil modern society the educational technique will are likely to replicate the social sample, whilst social uneasiness and instability generate chance for making use of education and learning as an instrument of social adjust”(p.7). A related check out was shared by John Dewey (1897) who opined that by way of education society can formulate its own reasons, can organize its personal signifies and resources and as a result save itself with definiteness and economic climate in the path in which it wishes to move. Education and learning appears both to the earlier and the future inevitably it reflects the traditions and character of culture. Classic schooling can be employed to get ready for modifications in culture and foresee and avoid adjustments or the outcomes of changes in modern society.
Conventional schooling conserves and palms on the customs and ways of daily life which constitute the character of a modern society and maintains its unity. It also will help modern society to interpret its functions in new techniques to meet up with the issues of modify, seeking techniques or strains of growth which are constant with the traditions and customs and will at the same time increase modern society to a more comprehensive fulfillment of by itself.
Classic Academic Institutions IN SIERRA LEONE
Heritage reveals that there have been no formal faculties exactly where children were educated in Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Mystery Societies ended up looked upon as institutions to train youngsters. They had been bush schools. And the education and learning these bush educational institutions offered was informal. Young children who went through these secret societies have been regarded as able of carrying out their civic responsibilities. They grew to become adults and can marry and start daily life. They deemed on their own as one family members. In other terms the two Key Societies created a feeling of comradeship and unity between associates irrespective of loved ones, clan or ethnic affiliation. It was for that reason deemed that youngsters who experienced not absent through these mystery societies had been not completely matured.
The Poro Magic formula Society is for boys. The religious head of the Poro Culture is Pa Gbonu, witnessed only by the more mature graduates or customers. The bodily heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They immediate the pursuits of the establishment. The senior instructors are the Pa Kashis, who generally train and give instructions to other initiators. The Pa Manchiyas provide as teachers to the initiates whilst the Kachemas are the scaring spirits. They scare the girls and youngsters alike jointly with the new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying messages around. The Yambas are the head boys. The Bomos are the senior prefects while the Sayboms are the prefects and the displays are the Gbanaboms. Informal courses are held in the Key Poro Bush. The topics taught consist of Innovative Useful Arts, Performing Arts, Useful Agriculture, Medicine i.e. use of regional herbs for the treatment of various conditions), warfare and other capabilities. In Inventive Useful Arts initiates are taught how to make fishing nets, baskets, mats, and carving wooden and cleaning soap stones into various objects such as animals and people in Performing Arts initiates are taught singing, dancing and the use of Poro musical devices. In Practical Agriculture initiates practice farming. Boys are taught to bear hardship with no complaint and expand accustomed to it. Thus they are taken to the farms of their teachers and elders to perform on pro bono foundation. However in the course of the harvest season initiates could move by way of these farms using whatsoever they need to have and take in without having getting questioned by farm proprietors. Initiates are taught to regard elders and use of guns to get rid of animals. In a similar vein initiates are taught how to use guns in combating in defense of their communities. Other skills initiates are taught consist of generating fish traps, fishing and searching web, and basketry. In the use of herbs initiates shell out funds (some freely given) for healing numerous sicknesses as properly as for safety from enemies, evil spirits and snake bites. Initiates who want to lead to harm to other folks making use of herbs could ‘redeem’ the herb/medication worried. More than all initiates are taught a new Language spoken only by members known as Ke Sornor. For example fonka trika that means I am speaking to you fonka bonomi meaning Talk to me. The use of this new Language tends to make graduates quite proud and come to feel distinct from non-initiates. Graduates appear out with new names this kind of as Lamp, Langba and Kolerr. A graduation ceremony climaxes the occasion.
Parents make enormous preparations including stitching attire for the graduates. To mark the graduation ceremony there is feasting, drinking, dancing and singing praise songs for the graduates and their mother and father. People competent for initiation must have been circumcised and grown to age of puberty. They have to reside on their possess for the duration of the period of education which ranges from 1 to seven several years. Graduates are completely admitted to the common Poro modern society via one more ceremony referred to as Enkorie, which lasts for four days.
The Bondo/Sande Modern society is the institution exactly where ladies are qualified for womanhood. Its religious head is Na Bondigba. The Na Gboyamas and Na Wulus are the bodily heads. These have non secular powers utilised to foretell the foreseeable future and catch witches. They are the senior lecturers. The Na Sokos are the services instructors. They can initiate women even up to the sophisticated phase of the Society. The Digbas are the general academics and keep near to the initiates. The Sampas are the skillful dancers and errand girls/women. They make bulletins about the development and activities or plans during the graduation ceremony.
The Na Fets, as the identify implies do not know all the secrecy of the establishment. They carry the institutional implements and regalia. The Karr Ayeamus are the ‘waiters’ to be initiated into the greater status of the institution. Girls admitted to the Bondo/Sande Modern society are educated informally. Lessons are held at Kantha or sacred home. The teachers are largely involved with the transmission to these adolescent girls the capabilities and information which adult females are envisioned to have in get to purpose effectively and intelligently in their neighborhood. The subjects women are taught include Cooking, Performing Arts, Fishing, Husband and Youngster Care, and Home Management. In Cooking girls are taught how to put together food by means of observation and participation in the planning of various dishes and are later on authorized to have a go with tiny or no supervision. Individuals who could not cook dinner properly are permitted to repeat. In Doing Arts ladies are taught how to compose and sing music and how to beat the Bondo/Sande drums (sambories). Along with singing ladies are taught how to dance and people who dance effectively might join the hierarchy of the Sampas. Women are also taught how to fishing, make fishing nets, fishing baskets, sleeping mats from bamboo and palm leaves. Even more ladies are taught how to support their potential husbands and how to take treatment of kids especially these of senior customers. Like the Poro Society graduation ceremonies are marked by substantial preparations. Both dad and mom and future husbands would buy new attire, slippers, perfumes, powder, and beads to make neck laces. On the day of the graduation ceremony the new initiates are arrayed in white with coronets. They occur out with new names this sort of as Burah, Yeanor, Rukor and Yainkain. This demonstrates a signal of maturity. Initiating girls into Bondo/Sande modern society lasts amongst a couple of months and 3 years.
If education has the essential function of perpetuating the traditions and values of modern society, of adapting them to a shifting environment, and of boosting them to richer and far more fruitful expression then equally the Poro and Bondo/Sande Key Societies, as traditional brokers of this method should enjoy a placement of the optimum esteem. Through these secret societies the nation’s culture flows from one particular technology to the other and the aspirations of culture are centered with intimate and telling persuasion on the younger. They stand at a point where the energies of youngsters are introduced into new and imaginative possibilities. Via these key societies youngsters keep in mind the past activities of their predecessors. They help in behavioral education patterns of culture. These societies are institutions of inspiration and the two politicians and chiefs use them to edge. That is to both acquire or maintain electrical power. Major and binding conclusions are taken in the Poro Bush of which only associates are allowed to go to and get element. The Poro Key Society functions as a check out from the abuse of electrical power. In disaster ridden situations key selection are taken in the Poro Bush. The Poro modern society even functions as arbitrator in chiefdom disputes and could promulgate general legal guidelines and control investing practices. It is also associated in the burial of chiefs and other essential nearby officials (Alie, 1990).
Western training has existed in the country for prolonged and is now so integral portion of the civilized daily life that there is a tendency to believe that it is the main or sole implies of imparting capabilities, understanding and social values in youngsters. This is not the circumstance in Sierra Leone. The value of the Poro and Bondo standard secret societies can not be more than-sighted simply because of their tremendous potentiality in educating young children for life in modern society. Essential is that respect for persons as folks is the basis of standard culture. Connected with this is courtesy, sensitivity to the requirements of other individuals, cooperativeness, self-willpower, moral and physical braveness, tough operate and higher expectations of achievement. These are passed on to children in the surroundings in which they are part of their everyday activities. Notwithstanding, these traditional establishments as agents of education and learning are at the moment faced with a lot of difficulties there-by forcing their demise. The apply of female genital circumcision is of worldwide concern and in Sierra Leone individuals are agitating for its total ban. Currently ladies are permitted to be circumcised at age eighteen for the duration of which time a youngster is perceived to be matured adequate to pick whether or not to be initiated into the Bondo/Sande magic formula culture. In addition the interval of initiation is perceived way too lengthy and is being challenged. Aside from youngsters these times no longer have to be initiated into these societies to be taught how to be clear, prepare dinner, rear young children, follow agriculture, and inculcate morals and virtues to cite a number of examples. All these could be learnt either in or outdoors official schooling by way of studying. What is far more Religion, particularly Christianity and Islam, western existence, as well as rural-urban migration are forcing these magic formula societies to obliteration.
In addition to the pursuits and perform of these traditional societies are not in curriculum kind and documented. Neither also is the use of herbs documented. For that reason by discontinuing these conventional secret societies Sierra Leoneans stand to get rid of their cultural heritage. If nevertheless, schooling has the important function of perpetuating the traditions and values of culture, of adapting them to a shifting environment, and of elevating them to a richer and more fruitful expression then these conventional magic formula societies, as agents of this process ought to appreciate a situation of the maximum esteem. Through these societies the nationwide tradition flows from a single era to one more and the aspirations of society are centered with personal and telling persuasion upon the younger. These key societies stand at the position where the energies of young children are released into new and imaginative possibilities.