Sierra Leone is bounded on the north-west, north and north-east by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. It has an location of 27,925 square miles. The colony of Sierra Leone originated in the sale and cession in 1787 by native chiefs to English settlers of a piece of land supposed as a home for African settlers who had been waifs in London and later on it was utilised as a settlement for freed African slaves. The hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on 21st August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on 27th April, 1961 and turned a Republic in 1971. Education is provided by both private and state-sponsored schools. The existing technique of education and learning is 6-three-4-four (that is 6 several years Principal school, three a long time Junior Secondary University, 4 several years Senior Secondary Faculty and 4 a long time tertiary/greater education. This technique is complemented by non- formal schooling.
Principle OF Education and learning
Education is often utilised in the perception of instruction in the classroom, laboratory, workshop or domestic science place and consists principally in the imparting by the teacher, and the acquisition by pupils, of details and mental as well as manual skills. A wider indicating than instruction is that of schooling. That is to say all that goes on inside the faculty as portion of the pupil’s daily life there. It involves, between other things, partnership among pupils and instructors, pupils and pupils the two in and exterior the school. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that no matter what will help to shape the human currently being to make the personal what he is or hinder him from becoming what he is not is portion of his training. Implicitly training is lifelong and ubiquitous it is the sum complete of all influences which go to make a man or woman what he is, from delivery to loss of life. It involves the house, our neighbors, and the avenue amid others.
Education and learning is to some extent a deliberate planned method devised and executed by the educator with the goal of imbuing the learner with specific data, abilities, of thoughts and physique as properly as modes of habits regarded as attractive. In element it is the learner’s personal response to the environment in which he life. Schooling has a few focal factors: the person/person upon whom the educator’s influences are introduced to bear the society or local community to which he belongs and the entire context of actuality inside of which the individual and culture perform their portion. Guy is a social creature he grows as a man or woman by way of the effect of individuality on individuality and even for his standard physical demands he relies upon on the assist and cooperation of his fellow guys and ladies. With out society and the mutual assistance and enrichment of activities which it provides civilization is extremely hard and the lifestyle of male, in Hobbes’ terms, is “solitary, very poor, terrible, brutish and quick.”
A single of the basic details of human existence is the tension amongst the pull of the previous and the forward urge into the long term, in between balance and modify, custom and innovation. For powerful dwelling,man wants a circle of security, an spot of established practices and relationship which forms trusted interactions. This is also true of culture. For its successful working there need to be an fundamental continuity of traditions and outlook which preserves its identification as a modern society and safeguards it towards the disruptive consequences of change. Modify should be for life and not static but this modify in turn should be controlled by the simple traditions of culture. It is tradition which provides a nation its character and distinctiveness as a society. The conservation of custom consequently is clearly critical.
It has been recognized from time immemorial that the conservation of traditional education and learning has a vital portion to play in the advancement of the youngster. The young children of these days are the adults of tomorrow they have to be trained therefore, to inherit and perpetuate the beliefs and modes of lifestyle peculiar to the certain society to which they belong. For every single culture has the wish to preserve by itself not only physically but as local community consciously sharing specified aims, ideals and styles of actions. This kind of schooling is not automatically official in schools by indicates of classroom instruction but that effected indirectly via the family members and through the impact on the personal of social influences and customs which the little one can not evade. In Sierra Leone this social training integrated elaborate ceremonies of initiation involving feats of endurance in which young males and females should demonstrate themselves worthy of the local community. The greatest objective was to produce an specific who was sincere, respectful, experienced, cooperative, and who could conform to the social buy of the working day. As Aristotle after stated “the structure of a state will undergo if schooling is neglected. The citizens of a condition ought to usually be educated to match the structure of the point out. The variety of character appropriate to a constitution is the electricity which carries on to maintain it as it is also the state power which originally designed it” (p. I).
Conventional Education IN Society
Standard education has each a imaginative and conservation operate in culture it is a powerful means of preserving a society’s customs, if not culture. In the previous the mother nature and demands of modern society played a vital element in figuring out the nature of schooling. Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) after wrote in his book, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil culture the instructional program will are inclined to mirror the social pattern, even though social uneasiness and instability create prospect for utilizing training as an instrument of social adjust”(p.7). A equivalent see was shared by John Dewey (1897) who opined that by way of education culture can formulate its very own purposes, can manage its very own means and resources and therefore preserve alone with definiteness and economic climate in the path in which it wishes to shift. Education looks equally to the past and the potential inevitably it displays the traditions and character of society. Classic schooling can be used to prepare for changes in modern society and foresee and prevent modifications or the consequences of modifications in modern society.
Classic education and learning conserves and palms on the customs and techniques of life which constitute the character of a society and maintains its unity. It also will help society to interpret its capabilities in new ways to meet the difficulties of modify, seeking methods or lines of growth which are steady with the traditions and customs and will at the identical time elevate culture to a more comprehensive success of by itself.
Traditional Academic Establishments IN SIERRA LEONE
Background reveals that there were no official colleges exactly where young children ended up educated in Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies had been seemed on as institutions to practice kids. They have been bush schools. And the training these bush faculties provided was casual. Youngsters who went through these key societies ended up considered able of carrying out their civic responsibilities. They became adults and can marry and commence life. They considered on their own as one family. In other phrases equally Magic formula Societies developed a feeling of comradeship and unity between members irrespective of loved ones, clan or ethnic affiliation. It was therefore considered that young children who had not long gone by means of these mystery societies were not fully matured.
The Poro Mystery Society is for boys. The religious head of the Poro Modern society is Pa Gbonu, noticed only by the more mature graduates or users. The actual physical heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They immediate the routines of the institution. The senior instructors are the Pa Kashis, who usually educate and give instructions to other initiators. The Pa Manchiyas serve as teachers to the initiates although the Kachemas are the scaring spirits. They scare the females and kids alike together with the new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying messages about. The Yambas are the head boys. The Bomos are the senior prefects even though the Sayboms are the prefects and the screens are the Gbanaboms. Casual classes are held in the Key Poro Bush. The topics taught consist of Creative Sensible Arts, Doing Arts, Useful Agriculture, Medication i.e. use of local herbs for the treatment method of various ailments), warfare and other capabilities. In Imaginative Sensible Arts initiates are taught how to make fishing nets, baskets, mats, and carving wooden and cleaning soap stones into different objects this kind of as animals and human beings in Carrying out Arts initiates are taught singing, dancing and the use of Poro musical instruments. In Functional Agriculture initiates follow farming. Boys are taught to bear hardship without having criticism and grow accustomed to it. Therefore they are taken to the farms of their teachers and elders to perform on professional bono basis. Nevertheless throughout the harvest time initiates could go by means of these farms using no matter what they need and try to eat with out getting questioned by farm proprietors. Initiates are taught to regard elders and use of guns to destroy animals. In a equivalent vein initiates are taught how to use guns in combating in protection of their communities. Other expertise initiates are taught include creating fish traps, fishing and hunting web, and basketry. In the use of herbs initiates pay income (some freely presented) for healing different sicknesses as well as for safety from enemies, evil spirits and snake bites. Initiates who want to cause hurt to others making use of herbs could ‘redeem’ the herb/medicine involved. Over all initiates are taught a new Language spoken only by users referred to as Ke Sornor. For instance fonka trika that means I am conversing to you fonka bonomi which means Talk to me. The use of this new Language tends to make graduates quite proud and truly feel different from non-initiates. Graduates occur out with new names this kind of as Lamp, Langba and Kolerr. A graduation ceremony climaxes the celebration.
Dad and mom make substantial preparations including stitching dresses for the graduates. To mark the graduation ceremony there is feasting, consuming, dancing and singing praise music for the graduates and their mothers and fathers. Individuals certified for initiation should have been circumcised and developed to age of puberty. They have to dwell on their personal throughout the time period of instruction which ranges from one to 7 years. Graduates are completely admitted to the basic Poro modern society through another ceremony known as Enkorie, which lasts for 4 times.
The Bondo/Sande Modern society is the establishment exactly where ladies are qualified for womanhood. Its spiritual head is Na Bondigba. The Na Gboyamas and Na Wulus are the bodily heads. These have religious powers utilized to foretell the long term and capture witches. They are the senior academics. The Na Sokos are the services instructors. They can initiate girls even up to the superior phase of the Modern society. The Digbas are the basic lecturers and continue to be shut to the initiates. The Sampas are the skillful dancers and errand women/ladies. They make announcements about the development and actions or packages for the duration of the graduation ceremony.
The Na Fets, as the name implies do not know all the secrecy of the establishment. They have the institutional implements and regalia. The Karr Ayeamus are the ‘waiters’ to be initiated into the higher position of the establishment. Girls admitted to the Bondo/Sande Culture are qualified informally. Classes are held at Kantha or sacred home. The academics are largely involved with the transmission to these adolescent ladies the capabilities and information which grownup ladies are anticipated to have in order to function effectively and intelligently in their group. The subjects ladies are taught incorporate Cooking, Executing Arts, Fishing, Husband and Kid Care, and Property Management. In Cooking ladies are taught how to get ready meals through observation and participation in the preparing of a variety of dishes and are afterwards permitted to have a go with little or no supervision. Individuals who could not cook properly are authorized to repeat. In Carrying out Arts girls are taught how to compose and sing tunes and how to beat the Bondo/Sande drums (sambories). Together with singing ladies are taught how to dance and those who dance effectively might be part of the hierarchy of the Sampas. Girls are also taught how to fishing, make fishing nets, fishing baskets, sleeping mats from bamboo and palm leaves. Even more women are taught how to support their prospective husbands and how to consider treatment of kids specially these of senior users. Like the Poro Culture graduation ceremonies are marked by substantial preparations. Each parents and possible husbands would purchase new attire, slippers, perfumes, powder, and beads to make neck laces. On the day of the graduation ceremony the new initiates are arrayed in white with coronets. They arrive out with new names such as Burah, Yeanor, Rukor and Yainkain. This demonstrates a sign of maturity. Initiating women into Bondo/Sande society lasts among a number of months and 3 a long time.
If education has the vital purpose of perpetuating the traditions and values of culture, of adapting them to a modifying atmosphere, and of elevating them to richer and a lot more fruitful expression then each the Poro and Bondo/Sande Mystery Societies, as standard agents of this procedure ought to enjoy a position of the maximum esteem. Through these secret societies the nation’s culture flows from a single era to the other and the aspirations of modern society are centered with personal and telling persuasion on the young. They stand at a position where the energies of young children are unveiled into new and inventive opportunities. Via these mystery societies youngsters remember the previous actions of their predecessors. They support in behavioral training designs of culture. These societies are establishments of inspiration and the two politicians and chiefs use them to advantage. That is to possibly acquire or sustain electrical power. Major and binding conclusions are taken in the Poro Bush of which only associates are permitted to show up at and take element. The Poro Mystery Society acts as a examine in opposition to the abuse of electricity. In crisis ridden situations major determination are taken in the Poro Bush. The Poro culture even functions as arbitrator in chiefdom disputes and could promulgate standard regulations and control trading practices. It is also associated in the burial of chiefs and other crucial neighborhood officials (Alie, 1990).
Western education has existed in the place for lengthy and is now so integral portion of the civilized life that there is a inclination to suppose that it is the primary or sole implies of imparting expertise, understanding and social values in young children. This is not the circumstance in Sierra Leone. The significance of the Poro and Bondo traditional magic formula societies can’t be in excess of-sighted simply because of their huge potentiality in educating kids for lifestyle in society. Basic is that regard for persons as individuals is the basis of conventional culture. Linked with this is courtesy, sensitivity to the demands of other individuals, cooperativeness, self-self-discipline, moral and physical braveness, tough operate and large specifications of achievement. These are passed on to kids in the surroundings in which they are element of their daily activities. Notwithstanding, these standard institutions as brokers of schooling are currently confronted with numerous difficulties there-by forcing their demise. The practice of woman genital circumcision is of worldwide problem and in Sierra Leone people are agitating for its total ban. At present ladies are permitted to be circumcised at age eighteen during which time a youngster is perceived to be matured sufficient to choose whether or not to be initiated into the Bondo/Sande key society. In addition the period of initiation is perceived too lengthy and is becoming challenged. Aside from youngsters these days no lengthier have to be initiated into these societies to be taught how to be thoroughly clean, cook, rear youngsters, follow agriculture, and inculcate morals and virtues to cite a few examples. All these could be learnt either in or outdoors official schooling through studying. What is much more Religion, specifically Christianity and Islam, western life, as properly as rural-city migration are forcing these magic formula societies to obliteration.
In addition to the routines and function of these conventional societies are not in curriculum kind and documented. Neither also is the use of herbs documented. Therefore by discontinuing these standard secret societies Sierra Leoneans stand to lose their cultural heritage. If even so, education and learning has the important purpose of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a shifting atmosphere, and of raising them to a richer and far more fruitful expression then these conventional mystery societies, as brokers of this method should enjoy a position of the highest esteem. Through these societies the countrywide tradition flows from one particular generation to yet another and the aspirations of culture are targeted with intimate and telling persuasion upon the youthful. These mystery societies stand at the level the place the energies of youngsters are released into new and imaginative prospects.